Gemstone Guide

Gemstone Guide

GemstoneColorGem SpeciesHardnessToughness StabilityClarityCommon InclusionsCrystal SystemEnhancementsGemstone Care      Chemicals to Avoid Note
Amethyst Purple to Violetish Purple Quartz 7 Good Good Type II Color Zoning, Liquid Inclusions, Two-Phase Inclusions, Three-Phase Inclusions, Negative Crystals Trigonal Heat Avoid Steam Cleaning,Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation,Soap, water, and soft brush Hyrdofluoric Acid, Ammonium Fluoride, and Alkaline Solutions *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Aquamarine Greenish Blue to Blue-Green, pale in tone Beryl 7.5 - 8 Good Good Type I Fingerprints, Liquid Inclusions, Two-Phase Inclusions, Three-Phase Inclusions, Hollow or Liquid Filled Parallel Tubes, Mineral Inclusions Hexagonal Heat Steam Cleaning with Cation, Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation, Soap, water, and soft brush *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Blank Onyx Black, transparent to opaque Chalcedony 7 Excellent Good Type I Generally not visible due to opaqueness Trigonal, Monoclinic Dye Avoid Steam Cleaning, Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation, Soap, water, and soft brush *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Blue Topaz Blue to Slightly Greenish Blue, pale in tone Topaz 8 Fair Good Type II Liquid Inclusions, Two-Phase Inclusions, Three-Phase Inclusions Orthorhombic Irradiation Avoid Steam Cleaning, Avoid Ultrasonic Cleaner, Soap, water, and soft brush *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Citrine Yellow to Orange Quartz 7 Good Good Type II Color Zoning, Liquid Inclusions, Two-Phase Inclusions, Three-Phase Inclusions, Negative Crystals Trigonal Heat Avoid Steam Cleaning, Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation, Soap, water, and soft brush Hyrdofluoric Acid, Ammonium Fluoride, and Alkaline Solutions *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Diamond Diamond 10 Good Excellent - Mineral Inclusions, Needles, Fractures, Twinning, Internal Graining Cubic None Steam Cleaning with Cation, Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation, Soap, water, and soft brush *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Emerald Green to Bluish Green and Slightly Yellowish Green, medium-light to dark tone Beryl 7.5 - 8 Poor Fair Type III Fingerprints, Liquid Inclusions, Two-Phase Inclusions, Three-Phase Inclusions, Tublar Inclusions, Mineral Inclusions Hexagonal Oil/Resin/Polymer Avoid Steam Cleaning,Avoid Ultrasonic Cleaner,Soap, water, and soft brush Most Chemicals *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Garnet Purplish Red to Orangish Red, dark in tone Garnet 6.5 - 7.5 Good Good Type II Needles, Mineral Inclusions Cubic None Avoid Steam Cleaning, Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation, Soap, water, and soft brush Hydrofluoric Acid *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Peridot Yellowish Green to Greenish Yellow Peridot 6.5 - 7 Fair to Good Fair Type II Mineral Inclusions, Liquid or Gas Inlcusions, Disk-like or "Lily Pad" Fractures Orthorhombic None Avoid Steam Cleaning, Avoid Ultrasonic Cleaner, Soap, water, and soft brush Most Acid Base Chemicals *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Pink Tourmaline Pink to Orangy Red, Red, Puprlish Red to Purple, light to strong saturation Tourmaline 7 - 7.5 Fair Very Good Type II Liquid Inclusions, Two-Phase Inclusions, Thin Gas or Liquid Filled Reflective Inclusions, Tubular Inclusions, Mineral Inclusions Trigonal Heat/Irradiation Avoid Steam Cleaning, Avoid Ultrasonic Cleaner, Soap, water, and soft brush *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Ruby Slightly Orangy Red o Strong Red, Slightly to Strongly Purplish Red Corundum 9 Excellent Excellent Type II Color Zoning, Needles, Mineral Inclusions, Fingerprints, Disk-like Fractures Trigonal Heat Steam Cleaning with Cation, Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation, Soap, water, and soft brush Boric Acid *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
Sapphire Blue, Strongly Greenish Blue, Violet Blue Corundum 9 Good Very Good Type II Color Zoning, Needles, Mineral Inclusions, Fingerprints, Disk-like Fractures Trigonal Heat Steam Cleaning with Cation, Ultasonic Cleaner with Cation, Soap, water, and soft brush Boric Acid *Do not use harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners at home*
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